Wednesday, April 24, 2013

THE EIGHT EXECUTED TERRORISTS [ANTITERRORISM AND EFFECTIVE DEATH PENALTY ACT OF 1996 ~ 24 APRIL 1996]



On this date, 24 April 1996, The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 was signed into law. I got the information from Wikipedia and I will name eight terrorists who were executed for terrorism activities. I hope that we can put all terrorists to death for they have caused the death of many innocent lives.


Full title
An Act To deter terrorism, provide justice for victims, provide for an effective death penalty, and for other purposes.
Acronym
AEDPA
Citations
Public Law
Stat.
110 Stat. 1214
  • Introduced in the Senate as S. 735 "Comprehensive Terrorism Prevention Act of 1995" by Bob Dole (R-KS) on April 27, 1995
  • Passed the Senate on June 7, 1995 (91–8)
  • Passed the House on March 14, 1996 (without objection)
  • Reported by the joint conference committee on April 15, 1996; agreed to by the Senate on April 17, 1996 (91-8) and by the House on April 18, 1996 (293–133)
  • Signed into law by President Bill Clinton on April 24, 1996
United States Supreme Court cases

The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-132, 110 Stat. 1214, (also known as AEDPA) is an act of Congress signed into law on April 24, 1996. The bill was introduced by former Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole, passed with broad bipartisan support by Congress (91-8-1 in the United States Senate, 293-133-7 in the House of Representatives) following the 1990s World Trade Center and Oklahoma City bombings, and signed into law by President Bill Clinton.

Habeas corpus

The AEDPA had a tremendous impact on the law of habeas corpus in the United States. One provision of the AEDPA limits the power of federal judges to grant relief unless the state court's adjudication of the claim resulted in a decision that was

1. contrary to, or involved an unreasonable application of clearly established federal law as determined by the Supreme Court of the United States; or

2. based on an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented in the state court proceeding.

In addition to the modifications that pertain to all habeas cases, AEDPA enacted special review provisions for capital cases from states that enacted quality controls for the performance of counsel in the state courts in the post-conviction phase. States that enacted these quality controls would see strict time limitations enforced against their death-row inmates in federal habeas proceedings coupled with extremely deferential review to the determinations of their courts regarding issues of federal law. Only Arizona has qualified for these additional provisions yet, but it has not been able to take advantage of them because it has not followed its own quality control procedures. More states may qualify for these additional provisions in the future because in 2005 Congress took the power to determine whether a state had qualified away from the federal courts and gave it to the Attorney General.

Other provisions of the AEDPA created entirely new statutory law. For example, before AEDPA the judicially created abuse-of-the-writ doctrine restricted the presentation of new claims through subsequent habeas petitions. The AEDPA replaced this doctrine with an absolute bar on second or successive petitions. Petitioners who attempted to bring claims in federal habeas proceedings that have already been decided in a previous habeas petition would find those claims barred. Additionally, petitioners who had already filed a federal habeas petition were required to first secure authorization from the appropriate federal court of appeals. Furthermore, AEDPA took away from the Supreme Court the power to review a court of appeals's denial of that permission, thus placing final authority for the filing of second petitions in the hands of the federal courts of appeals.

History
The bill was introduced by former Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole, passed with broad bipartisan support by Congress (91-8-1 in the United States Senate, 293-133-7 in the House of Representatives) following the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, and signed into law by President Bill Clinton on April 24, 1996.

Soon after it was enacted, AEDPA endured a critical test in the Supreme Court. The basis of the challenge was that the provisions limiting the ability of persons to file successive habeas petitions violated Article I, Section 9, Clause 2 of the US Constitution, the Suspension Clause. The Supreme Court held unanimously in Felker v. Turpin, 518 U.S. 651 (1997), that these limitations did not unconstitutionally suspend the writ.

In 2005, the United States Ninth Circuit indicated that it was willing to consider a challenge to the constitutionality of AEDPA on separation of powers grounds under City of Boerne v. Flores and Marbury v. Madison, but has since decided that the issue had been settled by circuit precedent.

Reception

While the act has several titles and provisions, the majority of criticism stems from the act's tightening of habeas corpus laws. Those in favor of the bill say that the act prevents those convicted of crimes from "thwart[ing] justice and avoid[ing] just punishment by filing frivolous appeals for years on end," while critics argue that the inability to make multiple appeals increases the risk of an innocent person being killed.

1. Timothy McVeigh A.K.A Timothy James "Tim" McVeigh (April 23, 1968 – June 11, 2001) was an American terrorist who detonated a truck bomb in front of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995. Commonly referred to as the Oklahoma City Bombing, the attack killed 168 people and injured over 800. It was the deadliest act of terrorism within the United States prior to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. As of 2013, the bombing remains the deadliest act of domestic terrorism in United States history. McVeigh, a militia movement sympathizer and Persian Gulf War veteran, sought revenge against the federal government for their handling of the Waco Siege, which ended in the deaths of 76 people exactly two years prior to the bombing, as well as for the Ruby Ridge incident in 1992. McVeigh hoped to inspire a revolt against what he considered to be a tyrannical federal government. He was convicted of eleven federal offenses and sentenced to death. His execution took place on June 11, 2001 at the Federal Correctional Complex in Terre Haute, Indiana. Terry Nichols and Michael Fortier were also convicted as conspirators in the plot.


Timothy McVeigh















2 to 4. Amrozi A.K.A the Smiling Assassin was executed together with Imam Samudra and Ali Ghufron Mukhlas by firing squad in Nusa Kambangan Island, Indonesia. They were involved in the 2002 Bail Bombings

From left to right: Ali Ghufron Mukhlas, Imam Samudra & Amrozi












5. The D.C. Sniper, John Allen Muhammad was executed by lethal injection at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt, Virginia on 10 November 2009. He went on a spree killing and had killed more than 10 people. 


John Allen Muhammad














6. Hamam El-Kamouny was executed by hanging in Egypt on a Monday morning (10 October 2011). He was put to death for the 7 January 2010 Nag Hammadi massacre where he killed six Christians and a Muslim.


Hamam El-Kamouny








7. Ajmal Amir Kasab the Lashkar-e-Taiba terrorist, was executed by hanging in the high-security Yerwada Jail in Pune, India on Wednesday 21 November at 7:30am. He was involved in the 2008 Mumbai Attacks that claimed 164 lives.



Ajmal Amir Kasab














8. Mohammad Afzal Guru (died 9 February 2013) was a convict in the December 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament, who was sentenced to death by a special Prevention of Terrorism Act Court in 2002. The Delhi High Court confirmed the judgment in 2003 and his appeal was rejected by the Supreme Court of India in 2005. The sentence was scheduled to be carried out on 20 October 2006, but Afzal was given a stay of execution and remained on death row. On 3 February 2013, his mercy petition was rejected by the President of India Pranab Mukherjee. He was hanged at Delhi's Tihar Jail around 08:00 am on 9 February 2013.


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